Tag Archives: HMAC SHA

BFD Generic Cryptographic Authentication

Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) specification includes five different types of authentication schemes: Simple Password, Keyed Message Digest 5 (MD5), Meticulous Keyed MD5, Keyed Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-1) and Meticulous SHA-1. In the simple password scheme of authentication, the passwords are exchanged in the clear text on the network and anyone with physical access to the network can learn the password and compromise the security of the BFD domain.

It was discovered that collisions can be found in MD5 algorithm in less than 24 hours, making MD5 insecure. Further research has verified this result and shown other ways to find collisions in MD5 hashes.

It should however be noted that these attacks may not necessarily result in direct vulnerabilities in Keyed-MD5 as used in BFD authentication purposes, because the colliding message may not necessarily be a syntactically correct protocol packet. However, there is a need felt to move away from MD5 towards more complex and difficult to break hash algorithms.

In Keyed SHA-1 and Meticulous SHA-1, the BFD routers share a secret key which is used to generate a keyed SHA-1 digest for each packet and a monotonically increasing sequence number scheme is used to prevent replay attacks.

Like MD5 there have been reports of attacks on SHA-1. Such attacks do not mean that all the protocols using SHA-1 for authentication are at risk. However, it does mean that SHA-1 should be replaced as soon as possible and should not be used for new applications.

However, if SHA-1 is used in the Hashed Message Authentication Code (HMAC) construction then collision attacks currently known against SHA-1 do not apply. The new attacks on SHA-1 have no impact on the security of HMAC-SHA-1.

I have written an IETF document that proposes two new authentication types – the cryptographic authentication and the meticulous cryptographic authentication . These can be used to specify any authentication algorithm for authenticating and verifying the BFD packets (aka key agility). In addition to this, this memo also explains how HMAC-SHA authentication can be used for BFD.

HMAC can be used, without modifying any hash function, for calculating and verifying the message authentication values. It verifies both the data integrity and the authenticity of a message.

By definition, HMAC requires a cryptographic hash function. We propose to use any one of SHA-1, SHA-256, SHA-384 and SHA-512 for this purpose to authenticate the BFD packets.

I recently co-authored an IETF draft that does BFD’s security and authentication mechanism’s gap analysis for the KARP WG – that draft can be found here.

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Issues with existing Cryptographic Protection Methods for Routing Protocols

Most of us believe that using cryptographic authentication methods (MD5, etc) for the routing protocols running inside our networks really makes them very secure. Well, not really ..

We have published RFC 6039 that explains how each routing protocol can be exploited despite using the cryptographic authentication mechanisms endorsed by the IETF community.

To cite an example, a simple IP header attack on OSPF or RIP can result in the two adjacent routers bringing down the peering relationship between them. This can, in the worst case, blackhole a substantial amount of data traffic inside the network, something that will certainly not go well with the customers!

So how can an OSPF adjacency be brought down?

OSPF neighbors on the broadcast, NBMA and point-to-multipoint networks are identified by the IP address in the IP header. Because the IP header is not covered by the MAC in the cryptographic authentication scheme as described in RFC 2328, an attack can be made exploiting this vulnerability.

R1 sends an authenticated HELLO to R2. This HELLO is captured and replayed back to R1, changing the source IP in the IP header to that of R2.

R1 not finding itself in HELLO would deduce that the connection is not bidirectional and would bring down the adjacency!

The RFC also discusses some issues that we found with Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) protocol thats very frequently used in the service provider networks.